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Spring Framework : ApplicationContext instantiation for web applications in Spring Framework

In web application ApplicationContext is created using Context Loaders. there are two implementations of context loader.
  • ContextLoaderListener : It is listener implementation that is added to web.xml file.
  • ContextLoaderServlet : It is servlet implementation that is configured with load-on-startup tag in web.xml.

 ContextLoaderListener is simple way to use the spring in web application. this listener accept contextConfigLocation parameter from context-parama.
You have to enter following code in web.xml file

define contextConfigLocation parameter in context-param tag.

services.xml is the Spring configuration file in which you define beans.

Add the ContextLoaderListener listener.


Here is the complete source code for the example demonstrating this.

import java.util.Random;
import java.util.Scanner;
public class InputService {
    public int getIntValue() {
        Random r=new Random();
        int val=r.nextInt();
        System.out.println("Returning value = "+val);
        return val;

public class OutputService{
    public int write(int x) {
        System.out.println("Output is "+x);
        return x;

CalServlet .java
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext;

public class CalServlet extends HttpServlet {
    protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request,
            HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {
        ApplicationContext ac = WebApplicationContextUtils.getRequiredWebApplicationContext(getServletContext());
        CalcMachine cal = (CalcMachine) ac.getBean("cal");
        response.getWriter().print("Adding of numbers is = " + cal.doAdd());


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns=""

    <bean id="in" class="InputService"/>
    <bean id="out" class="OutputService"/>
    <bean id="cal" class="CalcMachine">
        <property name="inputService">
            <ref bean="in" />
        <property name="outputService">
            <ref bean="out" />

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<web-app xmlns:xsi=""
    xmlns="" xmlns:web=""
    id="WebApp_ID" version="2.5">






Mathew Bukowicz said…
Nice tutorial! I love straight to the point articles with example code.
Anonymous said…
how should I run your code? There's no static void main or server
Hemraj said…
This is a web application. Run it in tomcat server or any java based server.

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